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This section is for advanced users and ultrasonics equipment suppliers who already know about the technology of power ultrasonics, or anyone who wants to know more than just the basics.
Particularly since the publishing of the sonotrode calculator (see below), I've been getting enquiries from people wanting more information on sonotrode design. The best reference I can give them is a 20+ year old handbook produced by ZVEI (the German Electrical Manufacturers Association) "Ultrasonic assembly of thermoplastic mouldings and semi-finished products - Recommendations on methods, construction and applications".
I contacted ZVEI who told me that this excellent publication is still available direct from them, and they have also generously given me permission to reproduce a part of it on this site, so here it is (thanks again Klaus!): Sonotrode manufacture (from ZVEI Handbook).
The sonotrode calculator was built mainly as an educational tool to enable newcomers to experiment with sonotrode lengths and frequencies. While it's limited in the present version to calculation of sound velocity, tuned lengths and resonant frequencies of rods and stepped-sonotrodes, a range of enhancements are planned including torsional / radial modes of vibration and animation.
The articles page provides links to a variety of research papers, technical articles and technology reviews in applied high-power ultrasonics (topics currently include ultrasonic food processing, metal and plastic welding, sonochemistry and ultrasonic metal forming).
The books page has references to all the relevant books and other publications (conference proceedings etc.) I can find.
Finally, my doctoral thesis - essential reading for anyone interested in ultrasonic metal forming, radial resonators (ultrasonic dies) or if you just have trouble sleeping!